Uploaded By: Charl Roberts
- Slide 1 - Imperialism & the Mandate Ottoman Empire consigned to the dustbin of history. Britain and France imposed their domination and policies on the people of the region. The creation of new states and support for the development of a Jewish Homeland. The new regimes were conservative and compliant, and often depended on the patronage and military support of the colonial powers.
- Slide 2 - Middle East in 1914
- Slide 3 - Broken Promises In 1916 Henry McMahon promised Arab independence, with the exception of Syria & Iraq. Sykes-Picot Agreement: France given control over Syria and Britain control over Iraq and Palestine Balfour Declaration declared British support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine: Lord Balfour, 1918: “The four great powers are committed to Zionism and Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-long tradition, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desires and prejudices of the 700 000 Arabs who now inhabit the ancient land.”
- Slide 4 - Syria 1914
- Slide 5 - Syria In 1918 Faysal Ibn Husayn occupied Damascus and raised the Arab flag to widespread popular support. The Arab Independence Party convened a general congress to organise elections. The Syrian National Congress met in March 1920 and called for independence. French opposed and invaded Syria in July 1920. King-Crane Commission found overwhelming support for independence, but was ignored by the imperial powers.
- Slide 6 - French Divide and Rule In 1920 the French divided its Syrian territory into two separate states: Damascus and Aleppo. In 1922 two further states were created: the Alawite State and Jabal Druze. In 1924, Damascus and Aleppo were re-united to form the new State of Syria. Also in 1920 Great Lebanon was created, ostensibly to protect the Maronite community. Syrian rebellion against French domination between 1925 & 1927
- Slide 7 - Syria 1923
- Slide 8 - Jordan & Palestine 1923
- Slide 9 - Transjordan Transjordan and Iraq did not exist as political or geographical entities prior to the end of World War One Faysal installed as monarch of Iraq Transjordan created to reward the Hashemites. Abdallah installed as king of the new state. Depended almost entirely on British patronage. Amman, the new capital, only had between 2500 – 5000 residents Almost no support from the indigenous population, the Bedouin
- Slide 10 - Egypt Resistance to colonial control was most intense in Egypt. Rapid decline in living conditions, especially for the fellahin. Massive movement for independence under the leadership of Zaghloul Pasha. 1919 Strike wave involving doctors, civil servants & students British army crushed the rebellion. Under pressure Britain introduced some concessions in 1922 but with conditions: Control over the security of the British Empire in Egypt Control over the defence of Egypt against foreign aggression. Control over the protection of foreign interests and of minorities Control over the Suez Canal.