Uploaded By: Charl Roberts
- Slide 1 - Zionism: Origins and meanings Jewish Nationalism that aimed to create a Jewish state or homeland in historical Palestine. Zionism was born in an era when Europe was at the height of its power as a colonial authority. The dominance of European colonial powers was also justified by racial theory or Social Darwinism. At the end of the 19th century Jews were victims of this racial theory. But supporters of Zionism applied the same racial register to people of the Middle East.
- Slide 2 - Anti-Semitism in Europe The late 19th century witnessed a growing mood of anti-Semitism across Europe. Jewish merchants often became the scapegoats for the financial difficulties experienced by European countries at the time. Pogroms against Jews were especially pronounced in Eastern Europe and parts of Russia. The roots of anti-Semitism are thus located in Europe.
- Slide 3 - Responses to anti-Semitism Immigration to the Americas. Between 1881 and 1920 more than 2 million European Jews chose this route. In Eastern Europe and Russia many joined radical political movements, especially socialist organizations. The economically prosperous and educated elite generally integrated themselves into official society. Some embraced Zionism, and argued that Jews could protect themselves against European discrimination by creating their own state.
- Slide 4 - Theodore Herzl The Jewish State: An attempt at a modern solution of the Jewish question (1896). The Jewish Question was a national issue and required Jews to have control over their own territory. First Zionist Congress held in 1897 World Zionist Organisation mobilised support to assist immigration of Jews to Palestine. 1901 the Jewish National Fund was created to raise money to finance settlements.
- Slide 5 - Different Versions Political Zionism [Herzl]: Jews could only become a nation like other nations within the framework of a Jewish state/homeland. Cultural Zionism [Ahad Ha’am]: Concerned that the creation of a national state would endanger the survival of Jews because Jews would be imitating gentiles to prove they could be normal. Labour Zionism [David Ben Gurion]: Influenced by socialist ideas. Members were active in the Bund Party in Russia and stressed collectivism.
- Slide 6 - Early Jewish responses to Zionism Wealthy and assimilated Jews regarded it as disruptive of the status quo. American Jews showed very little interest in the project. The Chief Rabbi of Vienna declared that Zionism was incompatible with Judaism. Socialist opposed any form of nationalism. Many however remained attracted to the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
- Slide 7 - A form of expansion? Gershon Shafir: “Zionism was a variety of Eastern European nationalism, that is, an ethnic movement in search of a state… But, at the other end of the journey it may be seen more fruitfully as a late instance of European overseas expansion.” Theodore Herzl: “The Jewish Company is partly modelled on the lines of a great acquisition company. It might be called a Jewish Chartered Company, though it cannot exercise sovereign power, and has no other than purely colonial tasks.”