Uploaded By: Roshini Pillay
- The Various Models in the...
- Bio-Medical Model
- Biomedical Model
- Definition of Terms
- Definition of Terms cont
- Bio-Medical Model cont
- Slide 7
- The Psycho-socio...
- The Psycho-socio...
- Slide 10
- Class Activity
- What is culture?
- Culture cont.
- Culture cont
- Types of medicine
- Traditional Medicine...
- African Traditional Healing
- Traditional Medicine
- Traditional Healers
- Traditional medicine
- Factors that influence the...
- Factors that influence the...
- Illness Prevention
- Thank You
- Slide 1 - The Various Models in the field Health and Wellbeing
- Slide 2 - Bio-Medical Model The nature and Causes of Health and disease All diseases are caused by a specific etiology The body is seen as a passive machine that is devoid of feelings and emotions. Interventions focus on treatment. The Patient The treatment focuses on the person’s body. The patient can be treated like a machine (passive during treatment) Thus the doctors approach is to resolve the problem on the patients behalf.
- Slide 3 - Biomedical Model The body and mind can be treated separately (mind body dualism The body can be repaired as a machine The technological imperative . The reductionist in the explanation of disease that focuses on biological changes. Germ theory a disease is caused by identifiable agent
- Slide 4 - Definition of Terms Illness Subjective feeling of distress that accompanies disease Pain and Discomfort A way of being by the individual –a subjective experience –not always accompanied by disease or pathology Sickness A social condition applied to people who are deemed by other to be ill or diseased. Disease Objective conditions- presence of pathology or abnormality in part of the body. Caused by bacteria, viruses
- Slide 5 - Definition of Terms cont Epidemic The outbreak of infections diseases such as cholera Pandemic Disease occurring over the whole country or world e.g. Aids
- Slide 6 - Bio-Medical Model cont Nature of intervention Focuses on treatment and the belief that medical knowledge and skills are sufficient to make the person’s body better. Role of Medicine Medical care with its technology and chemical interventions is perceived to have contributed a major role in the eradication of infections and parasitic diseases .
- Slide 7 - Bio-Medical Model cont Treatment Characterized by the treatment of disease rather than the person. Treatment of disease is based on technology and chemical means The biomedical model views health and disease through the microscope and offers solutions to what are of a large extent social problems.
- Slide 8 - The Psycho-socio Environment Model Focus: the promotion and maintenance of health through socio-environmental and behavioral changes. The person is no longer seen as a passive victim of disease but can play a role on their recovery. Also environmental factors like work, socio-economic factors also influence disease management. Where we live The food we buy The conditions under which we live and work This model is more holistic in nature. The role of the worker or health professional is about helping the patient help himself
- Slide 9 - The Psycho-socio Environment Model cont. The prevention and management of illness and comprehensive rehabilitation are seen more appropriate than treatment intervention. People are seen as participating in the treatment and recovery process. Changes in society and the environment contribute to disease management, prevention as well as health promotion. Social solutions are sought to problems of health and disease in society This model takes a more holistic view.
- Slide 11 - Class Activity Think about a sick friend or relative you know Discuss how their ill-health has affected their daily lives. Has culture played a role on how the person is viewed and treated. Can their health be better managed Who has played a role in their health management and how.
- Slide 12 - What is culture? Takes place within a social context Norms in a culture defines what is acceptable in a community. It distinguishes human from animal- linked to language and symbols It shapes behavior, and is linked to tradition custom and beliefs. It varies from one community to the next. We learn it as we grow. It is a process that is dynamic and changing. Different cultures exist in the same society at any one time. Culture has values and norms
- Slide 13 - Culture cont. Culture has an impact on behaviors related to health and well-being and the meaning attached to them. Culture is important in relation to whether one consults a traditional healer , an alternate medical practitioner or a western doctor. Individuals behavior is seen as the outcome of social and cultural forces. These forces affect the values and attitudes towards health as well illness behavior which prompt or delay professional health seeking.
- Slide 14 - Culture cont Modeling of health behaviors :eating and sleeping are learnt through culture. Gilbert et al.(2002) notes that there different medical systems or ways of diagnosing and treating illness and disease. These systems are often rooted in cultural differences and are linked to dominant value system of a particular culture
- Slide 15 - Types of medicine MEDICAL PLURALISM: the co-existence and availability of different ways of perceiving, explaining and treating illness Traditional Allopathic/ Western Medicine Complementary or alternate
- Slide 16 - Traditional Medicine Ross.(2008) Based on indigenous belief system Diseases are believed to arise from natural, social or psychological disturbances that create disequilibrium expressed in physical or mental problems. No distinction is made between physical and psychological problems . Traditional healing seeks to restore harmony through alleviating physical symptoms and re-integrating the person with his/her community, the earth and the spiritual world
- Slide 17 - African Traditional Healing 8 of 10 Black South Africans use traditional medicine alone or in combination with Western medicine. it is used by persons from all educational and socio-economic level. Traditional healers occupy esteemed positions and fulfill roles of physician ,priest, psychiatrics, teacher, diviner and herbalist. WHO (1994) recognized the role of the traditional healer as part of the primary health care system. The Traditional Health Practitioners’ Bill was passed in 2004 In SA there are about 250,000 and 400,000 traditional practitioners compared with 23000 registered doctors.
- Slide 18 - Traditional Medicine Traditional medicine is seen as more holistic. Diagnosis is based on the traditional healer’s interpretation of the patient social circumstances and through supernatural dynamics- Ubuntu Healers are more accessible to the people, more affordable Traditional healing has ties with religion, culture and values.
- Slide 19 - Traditional Healers Limitation: Some methods are unhygienic and some substances have side effects. illnesses are believed to be caused by a conflict between the ancestors, a gods, witch, sprit or sorcerer, a breakdown in human relationships ; or punishment HIV and Aids can be seen as punishment for having multiple partners (Jenkins,2006). Illness or bad luck can be cured through resolving conflicts with other and making peace with the ancestors. Spiritual pollution can be cleaned through washing, steaming, inducing vomiting and or the slaughtering of an animal
- Slide 20 - Traditional medicine Traditional healers have an important function to fulfill but they have often been neglected. As so many people use them there is a need to bring them on board for health promotion. There needs to be more research conducted on their approaches and the medicine they provide. They have a major role to play with HIV and Aids education and awareness.
- Slide 21 - Factors that influence the health Status of society The type of society Modern- industrialized society characterized by declining death rates, higher life expectancy and a declining maternal mortality. Pre-industrialized (under- developed society) Famine ,epidemics, high infant and maternal mortality.
- Slide 22 - Factors that influence the health Status of society cont. 2. Types of community-Rural (lack of access to health care services )-Urban( diseases of lifestyle e.g. heart disease)3. Family Characteristics - Heredity factors (family history of disease e.g. cancer and heart disease. - Family lifestyle- dietary patterns as a result of culture or economic status
- Slide 23 - Illness Prevention Primary Prevention Actions to keep conditions known to result in disease from occurring thus preventing the disease process from starting. Secondary Prevention Actions to limit the extent and severity of an illness after it has began, by early detection and treatment. Tertiary Prevention Efforts during and after the full impact of illness that would minimize its effects and preclude its recurrence. Health promotion and illness prevention are two phases of primary prevention For effectiveness there must be comprehensive and multi-focused (bifocal) aimed at changing individuals health behaviors, creating a positive climate
- Slide 24 - Thank You