Uploaded By: David Wafula
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- Slide 5 - GEMP Learning Excellence Bees make honey… Humans make… Thoughts
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- Slide 12 - GEMP Learning Excellence Deep and Surface Learning Deep Learning involves the critical analysis of new ideas, linking them to already known concepts and principles. Deep Learning leads to understanding and long term retention of concepts so they can be used for problem solving in unfamiliar context. Deep learning promotes understanding and application for life.
- Slide 13 - GEMP Learning Excellence Deep and Surface Learning Surface Learning is the tacit acceptance of information and memorisation as isolated and unlinked facts. Surface learning leads to superficial retention of material for examinations. Surface learning and does nor promote understanding or long term retention of knowledge and information.
- Slide 14 - GEMP Learning Excellence Deep and Surface Learning Both have a place in a well designed personal learning strategy. BUT Deep Learning should be the dominant approach. What are typical characteristics of Deep and Surface Learning? Draw a table with two columns and list some.
- Slide 15 - GEMP Learning Excellence Reading to Understand is Key: What do you do when you are looking for information quickly in a book, or looking for a telephone number? Effective reading requires your eyes to move a certain way. (Saccadic Eye Movement). * Using a pacer makes eye movements feel smoother and more definite. Allows you to to read larger groups of words with their meaning intact.
- Slide 16 - GEMP Learning Excellence Reading to Understand is Key: Read in chunks of information, between 1 and 3 sentences at a time, using a pacer to build good memory. How do you eat an elephant? Not all at once! Read with a positive attitude. Interact with what you read! The Golden Rule: Ask, Answer, Discuss. Auditory stimulation dramatically reduces the chances of mistakes in understanding.
- Slide 17 - Learning Excellence READING RATE (Decoding speed) WHY AUTOMATICITY IS IMPORTANT? Too fast = miss important information Too slow = jeopardises efficient comprehension; effortful; reduces enjoyment, disjointed words bits and pieces in STM; not enough information available Comprehension is difficult if word-for-word reading still occurs –90 wpm makes comprehension almost impossible Cognitive Linguistic Process We are wired to acquire spoken language, but reading and writing we have to learn Reading uses Left Brain Structures not used when we speak Reading uses Right Brain Visual (occipital parts of the brain) and Neuronal Networks must be laid down This is how we acquire Automatic Word Recognition so our reading becomes quicker.
- Slide 18 - Learning Excellence READING RATE (Decoding speed) What reading speed to aim for? First Language English Speakers read complex academic text at 250 wpm, with understanding intact. First Language English Speakers should be reading at least 180 / 200 wpm. Second Language English Speakers should be reading at least 140 / 160 wpm.. And more… How to improve? Build Up Your Brain’s Processing Capacity More reading leads to automatic word recognition Use a pacer to move eyes more smoothly over text Build vocabulary to increase automatic word recognition Read, read, read…actively. Use a pacer. Build vocabulary.
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- Slide 24 - Learning Excellence http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/ict/multiple_int/questions/choose_lang.cfm Multiple Intelligences on-line Questionnaire for Howard Gardiner’s Multiple Intelligence Profile. The 7 Multiple intelligences are: Linguistic, Logical / Mathematical, Visual / Spatial, Body / Kinesthetic, Interpersonal and Intrapersonal. See Notes for how to use the site on EISH: http://eish.health.wits.ac.za
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- Slide 26 - Logical/Mathematical Intelligence: Logical/Mathematical Intelligence: Dominance means you build memory through reasoning You like numbers, reasoning in a precise manner & manipulating numbers, quantities and operations You like being disciplined You like to experiment and figure things out. You learn best by categorising, classifying, working with abstract patterns/relationships
- Slide 27 - Learning Excellence Spatial / Visual Intelligence: Dominance means you build memory through abstract language and imagery. You like hands on activities, learn by seeing and doing. You recognise faces but don’t remember names as well. You like to draw. Build, design and create things You like thinking in pictures and visualise details easily. You navigate traffic well, are good at reading maps. You learn best by visualising, using the mind’s eye, working with colours and pictures.
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- Slide 29 - Kinaesthetic Intelligence: Kinaesthetic Intelligence: Dominance means you build memory through movement. You have good coordination, like to dance, demonstrate balance, grace and precision in physical tasks. You like to move around, touch and talk and use body language. You like to do things, invent new approaches to physical skills, to move when thinking. You learn best by touching, interacting with space and processing knowledge through bodily sensations.
- Slide 30 - Interpersonal Intelligence: Interpersonal Intelligence: Dominance means you build memory through bouncing ideas off other people. You have natural empathy and need contact with others. You like have friends, talk to people, mediate, resolve conflicts, mentor, join groups. You are good at organising and communicating. You learn best by sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating and interviewing (discussing).
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- Slide 33 - GEMP Learning Excellence Learning Styles: Felder & Soloman Active and Reflective Learners Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it, discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly first. (Which multiple intelligence does this link to?) Active learners tend to like group work more than reflective learners, who prefer working alone. Richard Felder’s Learning Styles: http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSpage.html and learning styles information http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html
- Slide 34 - GEMP Learning Excellence Everybody is Active sometimes and Reflective sometimes Your preference for one category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. A balance of the two is desirable.
- Slide 35 - GEMP Learning Excellence How can active learners help themselves? Studying in a group… Work with others… Find ways to do something with information so... How can reflective learners help themselves? Not simply reading or memorising the material, but… You might find it helpful to write short summaries of readings or class notes in your own words.
- Slide 36 - GEMP Learning Excellence Sensing and Intuitive Learners Sensing learners tend to like learning facts. They often like solving problems by well established methods and dislike complications and surprises Intuitive learners often prefer discovering possibilities and relationships. They like innovation and dislike repetition. Sensors tend to be patient with details and good at memorising facts and doing hands-on, laboratory work. Intuitors may be better at grasping new concepts and are often more comfortable than sensors with abstractions and mathematical formulations.
- Slide 37 - GEMP Learning Excellence Everybody is sensing sometimes and intuitive sometimes. Your preference for one or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. To be effective as a learner and problem solver, you need to be able to function both ways
- Slide 38 - GEMP Learning Excellence How can sensing learners help themselves? Sensors remember and understand information best if they can see how it connects to the real world. Ask for specific examples of concepts and procedures, and… How can intuitive learners help themselves? If you are an intuitor and you happen to be in a class that deals primarily with memorization and rote substitution in formulas, you may have trouble with boredom. Ask for interpretations or theories that link the facts, or try to find the connections yourself.
- Slide 39 - Visual and Verbal Learners Visual and Verbal Learners Visual learners remember best what they see: pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines, films, and demonstrations. Verbal learners get more out of words: written and spoken explanations. Everyone learns more when information is presented both visually and verbally.
- Slide 40 - GEMP Learning Excellence How can visual learners help themselves? Try to find diagrams, sketches, schematics, photographs, flow charts, or … Prepare a concept map by listing key points, enclosing them in boxes or circles, and drawing lines with arrows between concepts to show connections. Color code… How can verbal learners help themselves? Write summaries or outlines of course material in your own words. Working in groups is particularly effective
- Slide 41 - GEMP Learning Excellence Sequential and Global Learners Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step following logically from the previous one. Sequential learners tend to follow logical stepwise paths in finding solutions Global learners tend to learn in large jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then suddenly "getting it."
- Slide 42 - GEMP Learning Excellence How can sequential learners help themselves? If you are a sequential learner and you have an instructor who jumps around from topic to topic or skips steps, you may have difficulty following and remembering. Try to fill in the skipped steps yourself by consulting references or ask. When you are studying, take the time to outline the lecture material for yourself in logical order. How can global learners help themselves? If you are a global learner, it can be helpful for you to realize that you need the big picture of a subject before you can master details. There are steps you can take. Before you begin to study the first section of a chapter in a text, skim through the entire chapter to get an overview. Doing so may be time-consuming initially but it may save you from going over and over individual parts later. Instead of spending a short time on every subject every night, you might find it more productive to immerse yourself in individual subjects for large blocks.
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